Advances in Research
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The following index links to citations describing emerging findings in autism research:

BIOMARKERS

BIOMEDICAL TREATMENT

DETOXIFICATION

ENVIRONMENT

GASTROINTESTINAL

GENETICS

IMMUNE SYSTEM

METABOLISM

NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES, SUPPLEMENTS & DIET

OXIDATIVE STRESS

PREVALENCE

VIRUSES & BACTERIA IN AUTISM

 

BIOMARKERS | Back to Index
      Al-Gadani Y, El-Ansary A, Attas O, Al-Ayadhi L. Metabolic biomarkers related to oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Saudi autistic children. Clin Biochem. 2009 Jul;42(10-11):1032-40.
      Faber S, Zinn GM, Kern Ii JC, Skip Kingston HM. The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum disorders. Biomarkers. 2009 Mar 11:1-10.
      James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, Neubrander JA. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1611-7.
      Pastural E, et al. Novel plasma phospholipid biomarkers of autism: Mitochondrial dysfunction as a putative causative mechanism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Oct;81(4):253-64.
Yap IK, Angley M, Veselkov KA, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Differentiates Children with Autism from Their Unaffected Siblings and Age-Matched Controls. J Proteome Res. 2010 May 13.

BIOMEDICAL TREATMENT | Back to Index
      Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA. Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):15-32.
      Cubała-Kucharska M. The review of most frequently occurring medical disorders related to aetiology of autism and the methods of treatment. Acta Neurobiol Exp. 2010, 70: 141–146.
      Goin-Kochel RP, Mackintosh VH, Myers, BJ. Parental reports on the efficacy of treatments and therapies of their children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009.
      Golnik AE, Ireland M. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Mar.
      O'Hara NH, Szakacs GM. The recovery of a child with autism spectrum disorder through biomedical interventions. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):42-4.
Rossignol DA. Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):213-36.

DETOXIFICATION |  Back to Index
      Adams JB, Romdalvik J, Ramanujam V.M.S., Legator MS, Mercury, Lead, and Zinc in Baby Teeth of Children with Autism vs. Controls. J Toxicol Environ Health 2007 70(12):1046-51.
      Adams JB, et al. The severity of autism is associated with toxic metal body burden and red blood cell glutathione levels. J Toxicol. 2009;2009:532640.
      Adams JB, Romdalvik J, Levine KE, Lin-Wen H. Mercury in first-cut baby hair of children with autism versus typically developing children. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008, 1–14, iFirst.
      Adams JB, et al. Safety and efficacy of oral DMSA therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: Part A--medical results & part B - behavioral results. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Oct 23;9:16&17.
      Aremu DA, Madejczyk MS, Ballatori N. N-acetylcysteine as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent of methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan;116(1):26-31.
      Aschner M, Syversen T, Souza DO, Rocha JB. Metallothioneins: mercury species-specific induction and their potential role in attenuating neurotoxicity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Oct;231(9):1468-73.
      Becker KG, Schultz ST. Similarities in features of autism and asthma and a possible link to acetaminophen use. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):7-11.
      Beversdorf DQ, Manning SE, et al. Timing of prenatal stressors and autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2005: 35(4): 471-8.
      Blanusa M, et al. Chelators as antidotes of metal toxicity: therapeutic and experimental aspects. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(23):2771.
      Burbacher TM, Shen DD, Liberato N, Grant KS, Cernichiari E, Clarkson T. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1015-21.
      Cao Y, Chen A, Jones RL, Radcliffe J, Dietrich KN, Caldwell KL, Peddada S, Rogan WJ. Efficacy of succimer chelation of mercury at background exposures in toddlers: a randomized trial. J Pediatr. 2011 Mar;158(3):480-485.e1.
      Corsello S, Fulgenzi A, Vietti D, Ferrero ME. The usefulness of chelation therapy for the remission of symptoms caused by previous treatment with mercury-containing pharmaceuticals: a case report. Cases J. 2009 Nov 18;2:199.
      Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set. J Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1308-1311.
      DeSoto MC. Ockham's Razor and autism: the case for developmental neurotoxins contributing to a disease of neurodevelopment. Neurotoxicology. 2009 May;30(3):331-7.
      Dórea JG. Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines. Neurochem Res. 2011 Feb 25.
      Emanuele E, et al. Low-grade endotoxemia in patients with severe autism. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 8;471(3):162-5.
      Fonnum F, Lock EA. The contributions of excitotoxicity, glutathione depletion and DNA repair in chemically induced injury to neurones: exemplified with toxic effects on cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem.      2004 Feb;88(3):513-31.
      Forman J, et al. A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jun;108(6):575-7.
      Gallagher, Goodman. Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008 Sept: 90(5)997-1008.
      Goth SR, Chu RA, Gregg JP, Cherednichenko G, Pessah IN. Uncoupling of ATP-mediated calcium signaling and dysregulated interleukin-6 secretion in dendritic cells by nanomolar thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(7):1083-91.
      Goyer RA, Cherian MG, Jones MM, Reigart JR. Role of chelating agents for prevention, intervention, and treatment of exposures to toxic metals. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Nov;103(11):1048-52.
      Graziano JH, Lolacono NJ, Moulton T, Mitchell ME, Slavkovich V, Zarate C. Controlled study of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for the management of childhood lead intoxication. J Pediatr. 1992 Jan;120(1):133-9.
      Havarinasab S, Hultman P. Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Rev 2005;4:270-275.
      Havarinasab S, Haggqvist B, Bjorn E, Pollard KM, Hultman P. Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 15;204(2):109-21.
      Hewitson L, et al. Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine: influence of gestational age and birth weight. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010 Jan;73(19):1298-313.
      Holmes AS, et al. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Int J Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug;22(4):277-85.
      Hornig M, et al. Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse-strain dependent. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;9(9):833-45.
      Hunjan MK, Evered DF. Absorption of glutathione from the gastrointestinal tract. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 May 14;815(2):184.
      Hurlbut KM, et al. Determination and metabolism of dithiol chelating agents. XVI: Pharmacokinetics of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate after intravenous administration to human volunteers.      J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Feb;268(2):662-8.
      Ip P, Wong V, Ho M, Lee J, Wong W. Mercury exposure in children with autistic spectrum disorder: case-control study.      J Child Neurol. 2004 Jun;19(6):431-4.
      Kalkbrenner AE, Daniels JL, Chen JC, Poole C, Emch M, Morrissey J. Perinatal exposure to hazardous air pollutants and autism spectrum disorders at age 8. Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):631-41.
      Kern JK, Jones AM. Evidence of toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult in autism. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):485-99.
      Kern JK, et al. Sulfhydryl-reactive metals in autism. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Apr 15;70(8):715-21.
      Kern JK, Geier DA, Adams JB, Geier MR. A biomarker of mercury body-burden correlated with diagnostic domain specific clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Biometals. 2010 Jun 9.
      Lafleur DL, et al. N-acetylcysteine augmentation in serotonin reuptake inhibitor refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan;184(2):254-6.
      Lauterburg BH, Mitchell JR.      Therapeutic doses of acetaminophen stimulate the turnover of cysteine and glutathione in man.      J Hepatol.      1987 Apr;4(2):206-11.
      Lonsdale D, Shamberfger RJ, Audhya T. Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study. Neuroendocrinol Lett.      2002 Aug;23(4):303-8.
      Makani S, Gollapudi S, Yel L, Chiplunkar S, Gupta S. Biochemical and molecular basis of thimerosal-induced apoptosis in T cells: a major role of mitochondrial pathway. Genes Immun. 2002 Aug;3(5):270-8.
      Mayer M, Noble M. N-acetyl-L-cysteine is a pluripotent protector against cell death and enhancer of trophic factor-mediated cell survival in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 2;91(16):7496-500.
      Miller AL. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a non-toxic, water-soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jun;3(3):199-207.
      Minami T, Miyata E, Sakamoto Y, Yamazaki H, Ichida S. Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2009 Apr 9.
      Mutter J, Naumann J, et al. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence? Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2005: 26(5): 439-46.
      N-acetylcysteine [No authors listed]. Altern Med Rev.      2000 Oct;5(5):467-71.
      Olczak M, et al. Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats. Brain Res. 2009 Dec 8;1301:143-51.
      Pasca SP, Nemes B, Vlase L, Gagyi CE, Dronca E, Miu AC, Dronca M. High levels of homocysteine and low serum paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity in children with autism. Life Sci. 2006 Apr 4;78(19):2244-8.
      Pastore A et al. Analysis of glutathione: implication in redox and detoxification. Clin Chim Acta.      2003 Jul 1;333(1):19-39.
      Rose S, Melnyk S, et al. The frequency of polymorphisms affecting lead and mercury toxicity among children with autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 2008: 4(2): 85-94.
      Rush T, Hjelmhaug J, Lobner D. Effects of chelators on mercury, iron, and lead neurotoxicity in cortical culture. Neurotoxicology. 2009 Jan;30(1):47-51.
      Schultz, ST. Can autism be triggered by acetaminophen activation of the endocannabinoid system? Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 227–231.
      Shannon M, Graef      JW.      Lead intoxication in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996;34(2):177-81.
      Stamova B, et al. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism. Neurotox Res. 2009 Nov 24.
      Stangle DE, et al. Succimer chelation improves learning, attention and arousal regulation in lead-exposed rats but produces lasting cognitive impairment in the absence of lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 30 October 2006.
      Testa B, et al. Management of chronic otitis media with effusion: the role of glutathione. Laryngoscope. 2001 Aug;111(8):1486-9.
      Tian Y, et al. Correlations of Gene Expression with Blood Lead Levels in Children with Autism Compared to Typically Developing Controls. Neurotox Res. 2009 Nov 17.
      Waly M, et al. Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;9(4):358-7
      Waring RH, Klovrza LV. Sulphur metabolism in autism. J Nutr Env Med. 2000;10:25-32.
      Waring RH., et al. Biochemical parameters in autistic children. Dev Brain Dysfunction. 1997;10:40-43.
      Westphal GA, et al. Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2000 73(6):384-8.
      Woods JS, et al. Studies on porphyrin metabolism in the kidney. Effects of trace metals and glutathione on renal uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Mol Pharmacol 1984. 26(2): 336-41.
      Woods JS, et al. Quantitative measurement of porphyrins in biological tissues and evaluation of tissue porphyrins during toxicant exposures. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1993. 21(3): 291-7.
      Woods JS, et al. Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Neurotypical and Autistic Children. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun 24.
      Yousef S, Adem A, Zoubeidi T, Kosanovic M, Mabrouk AA, Eapen V. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Environmental Toxic Metal Exposure in the United Arab Emirates. J Trop Pediatr. 2011 Feb 6.
Zoroglu SS, et al. Pathophysiological role of nitric oxide and adrenomedullin in autism. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Mar;21(1):55-60.

ENVIRONMENT | Back to Index
      Bello SC. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary. Rev Environ Health 2007: 22(2): 139-56.
      Bouchard MF, Bellinger DC, Wright RO, Weisskopf MG. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1270-7.
      Curtis JT, Hood AN, Chen Y, Cobb GP, Wallace DR. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Nov 12;213(1):42-9.
      DeSoto MC, Hitlan RT. Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 165.
      Deth R, et al. How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis. Neurotoxicology 2008: 29(1): 190-201.
      Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2167-78.
      Hallmayer J, et al. Genetic Heritability and Shared Environmental Factors Among Twin Pairs With Autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 4.
      Hewitson L, Lopresti B, Stott C, Mason NS, Tomko J. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 147–164.
      Herbert MR, Russo JP, Yang S et al. Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology 2006; 27(5):671-84.
      Herbert MR. Contributions of the environment and environmentally vulnerable physiology to autism spectrum disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010 Apr;23(2):103-10
      Herbstman JB, et al. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):712-9.
      Herr CE, et al. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths. Environ Health. 2010 Aug 2;9:46.
      Herr CE, et al. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Feb;22(1 Pt 1):75-84.
      Kalkbrenner AE, Daniels JL, Chen JC, Poole C, Emch M, Morrissey J. Perinatal Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorders at Age 8. Epidemiology. 2010 Jun 17.
      Kempuraj D, Asadi S, Zhang B, Manola A, Hogan J, Peterson E, Theoharides TC. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2010 Mar 11;7:20.
      Kinney DK, Barch DH, Chayka B, Napoleon S, Munir KM. Environmental risk factors for autism: do they help cause de novo genetic mutations that contribute to the disorder? Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):102-6.
      Kinney DK, Miller AM, et al. Autism prevalence following prenatal exposure to hurricanes and tropical storms in Louisiana. J Autism Dev Disord 2008: 38(3): 481-8.
      Kubota T. Epigenetics in congenital diseases and pervasive developmental disorders. Environ Health Prev Med. 2008 Jan;13(1):3-7.
      Landrigan PJ. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010 Apr;22(2):219-25.
      Lanphear BP, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jul;113(7):894-9.
      Magalhães ES, et al. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome. J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30;216(1-2):108-12.
      Majewska MD, Urbanowicz E, Rok-Bujko P, Namysowska I, Mierzejewski P. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 196–208.
      McDonald ME, Paul JF. Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence. Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Mar 15;44(6):2112-8
      Nataf R, Skorupka C, Amet L, Lam A, Springbett A, Lathe R. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 15;214(2):99-108.
      Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Stein Z, Mandell D, Miller C. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas. Health Place. 2006 Jun;12(2):203-9.
      Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Wood R. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence. Health Place. 2008 Feb 12.
      Rea WJ, Didriksen N, Simon TR, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Griffiths B. Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illnesses. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jul;58(7):399-405.
      Shaw W. Increased urinary excretion of a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA), an abnormal phenylalanine metabolite of Clostridia spp. in the gastrointestinal tract, in urine samples from patients with autism and schizophrenia. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Jun;13(3):135-43.
      Windham G, Zhang L, Gunier R, Croen L, Grether J. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Sep;114(9):1438-44.
      Woods JS. Altered porphyrin metabolism as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1996. 74(2).
Yorbik O, Kurt I, Haşimi A, Oztürk O. Chromium, cadmium, and lead levels in urine of children with autism and typically developing controls. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):10-5.

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM | Back to Index
      Adams JB, Johansen LJ, Powell LD, Quig D, Rubin RA. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism--comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar 16;11:22.
      Afzal N, et al. Constipation with acquired megarectum in children with autism. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):939-42.
      Arvilommi H, Isolauri E.Kalliomäki M, Poussa T, Salminen S. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 361(9372):1869-71.
      Ashwood P et al.      Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;23(6):504-17.
      Ashwood P, Wakefield AJ. Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr;173(1-2):126-34.
      Balzola F, Barbon V, Repici A, Rizzetto M. Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by the wireless capsule enteroscopy: another piece in the jigsaw of this gut-brain syndrome? Am J Gastro. 2005; 979-981.
      Balzola F, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:Suppl.2;A-303.
      Balzola F, et al.      Beneficial behavioural effects of IBD therapy and gluten/casein-free diet in an Italian cohort of patients with autistic enterocolitis followed over one year. Gastroenterology, April 2006 Vol 130 Number 4 suppl. 2 S1364 A-21.
      Bercik P, et al. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Aug;141(2):599-609.e3.
      Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, et al.      Role of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in management and prevention of diarrhea.      World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4557-4560.
      Buie T, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S1-18.
      Buie T, Fuchs GJ 3rd, Furuta GT, Kooros K, Levy J, Lewis JD, Wershil BK, Winter H. Recommendations for evaluation and treatment of common gastrointestinal problems in children with ASDs. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S19-29.
      Buts JP, De Keyser N. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on intestinal mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1485-92.
      Cade R, et al. Autism and schizophrenia: intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72, 2000.
      Cade JR, et al. Autism and schizophrenia linked to malfunctioning enzyme for milk protein digestion. Autism, Mar 1999.
      Chen B, Girgis S, El-Matary W. Childhood autism and eosinophilic colitis. Digestion. 2010;81(2):127-9.
      Critchfield JW, van Hemert S, Ash M, Mulder L, Ashwood P. The potential role of probiotics in the management of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:161358.
      DeFelice ML, et al. Intestinal cytokines in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 98(8): 1777-82: 2003.
      de Magistris L, et al. Alterations of the Intestinal Barrier in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorders and in Their First-degree Relatives. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Jul 28.
      del Giudice MM, Brunese FP. Probiotics, prebiotics, and allergy in children: what's new in the last year? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S205-8.
      D'Eufemia P, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr. 1996 Sep;85(9):1076-9.
      Fedorak RN, Madsen KL. Probiotics and the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 May;10(3):286.
      Finegold SM, Dowd SE, Gontcharova V, Liu C, Henley KE, Wolcott RD, Youn E, Summanen PH, Granpeesheh D, Dixon D, Liu M, Molitoris DR, Green JA 3rd. Pyrosequencing study of fecal microflora of autistic and control children. Anaerobe. 2010 Jul 8.
      Finegold SM. State of the art; microbiology in health and disease. Intestinal bacterial flora in autism. Anaerobe. 2011 Dec;17(6):367.
      Furlano RI, et al. Colonic CD8 and gamma delta T-cell infiltration with epithelial damage in children with autism. J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):366-72.
      Galiatsatos P, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: fact or fiction? Can J Gastroenterol 2009;23(2):95-98.
      Genuis SJ, Bouchard TP. Celiac Disease Presenting as Autism. J Child Neurol. 2009 Jun 29.
      Gonzalez L, Lopez K, Navarro D, Negron L, Flores L, Rodriguez R, Martinez M, Sabra A. Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the digestive mucosa in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr 69;1:19-25
      Hassall E. Decisions in diagnosing and managing chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease in children. J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3 Suppl):S3-12.
      Heijtz RD, Wang S, Anuar F, Qian Y, Björkholm B, Samuelsson A, Hibberd ML, Forssberg H, Pettersson S. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 15;108(7):3047-52.
      Horvath K et al.      Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr. 1999 Nov;135(5):559-63.
      Horvath K, Perman JA. Autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002 Jun;4(3):251-8.
      Horvath K, Perman JA. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Oct;14(5):583-7.
      Iacono G et al.      Intolerance of cow's milk and chronic constipation in children.      N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 15;339(16):1100-4.
      Işeri SO, Sener G, Sağlam B, Gedik N, Ercan F, Yeğen BC. Oxytocin ameliorates oxidative colonic inflammation by a neutrophil-dependent mechanism. Peptides. 2005 Mar;26(3):483-91.
      Kawashima H et al. Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):723-9.
      Kazek B, et al. Platelet and intestinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA in autistic spectrum disorders – results of a pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 232–238.
      Koch TR, et al. Induction of enlarged intestinal lymphoid aggregates during acute glutathione depletion in a murine model. Dig Dis Sci 2000. 45(11): 2115-21.
      Kuddo T, Nelson KB. How common are gastrointestinal disorders in children with autism. Curr Opin Pediatr 2003: 15(3); 339-343.
      Kushak RI, Lauwers GY, Winter HS, Buie TM. Intestinal disaccharidase activity in patients with autism: Effect of age, gender, and intestinal inflammation. Autism. 2011 Mar 17.
      Levy S, et al. Children with autistic spectrum disorders. I: Comparison of placebo and single dose of human synthetic secretin. Arch. Dis. Child. 2003;88;731-736.
      Macdonald A. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2006 Jul-Aug;29(4):295-301.
      McGinnis WR. Mercury and autistic gut disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jul;109(7):A303-4.
      Melmed RD, Schneider CK, Fabes RA. Metabolic markers and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism and related disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000:31(suppl 2)S31-32.
      Nikolov, RN, et al, Gastrointestinal symptoms in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Mar;39(3):405-13.
      Parracho HM, Bingham MO, Gibson GR, McCartney AL. Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Oct;54(Pt 10):987-91.
      Quigley EM, Hurley D. Autism and the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Sep;95(9):2154-6.
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GENETICS | Back to Index
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